About the Most Popular Zoomorphic Hindu Deity
Ganesha ¡ª the elephant-deity riding a mouse ¡ª has become one of the commonest
mnemonics for anything associated with Hinduism. This not only suggests
the importance of Ganesha, but also shows how popular and pervasive this
deity is in the minds of the masses.
Lord of Success
The son of Shiva and Parvati, Ganesha has an elephantine countenance with
a curved trunk and big ears, and a huge pot-bellied body of a human being.
He is the Lord of success and destroyer of evils and obstacles. He is
also worshipped as the god of education, knowledge, wisdom and wealth.
In fact, Ganesha is one of the five prime Hindu deities (Brahma, Vishnu,
Shiva and Durga being the other four) whose idolatry is glorified as the
The devotees of Ganesha are known as 'Ganapatyas', and the festival to
celebrate and glorify him is called Ganesh Chaturthi.
Significance of the Ganesha Form
Ganesha's head symbolizes the Atman or the soul, which is the ultimate
supreme reality of human existence, and his human body signifies Maya
or the earthly existence of human beings. The elephant head denotes wisdom
and its trunk represents Om, the sound symbol of cosmic reality. In his
upper right hand Ganesha holds a goad, which helps him propel mankind
forward on the eternal path and remove obstacles from the way. The noose
in Ganesha's left hand is a gentle implement to capture all difficulties.
The broken tusk that Ganesha holds like a pen in his lower right hand
is a symbol of sacrifice, which he broke for writing the Mahabharata.
The rosary in his other hand suggests that the pursuit of knowledge should
be continuous. The laddoo (sweet) he holds in his trunk indicates that
one must discover the sweetness of the Atman. His fan-like ears convey
that he is all ears to our petition. The snake that runs round his waist
represents energy in all forms. And he is humble enough to ride the lowest
of creatures, a mouse.
Ganesha Got His Head
The story of the birth of this zoomorphic deity, as depicted in the Shiva
Purana, goes like this: Once goddess Parvati, while bathing, created a
boy out of the dirt of her body and assigned him the task of guarding
the entrance to her bathroom. When Shiva, her husband returned, he was
surprised to find a stranger denying him access, and struck off the boy's
head in rage. Parvati broke down in utter grief and to soothe her, Shiva
sent out his squad (gana) to fetch the head of any sleeping being who
was facing the north. The company found a sleeping elephant and brought
back its severed head, which was then attached to the body of the boy.
Shiva restored its life and made him the leader (pati) of his troops.
Hence his name 'Ganapati'. Shiva also bestowed a boon that people would
worship him and invoke his name before undertaking any venture.
However, there's another less popular story of his origin, found in the
Brahma Vaivarta Purana: Shiva asked Parvati to observe the punyaka vrata
for a year to appease Vishnu in order to have a son. When a son was born
to her, all the gods and goddesses assembled to rejoice on its birth.
Lord Shani, the son of Surya (Sun-God), was also present but he refused
to look at the infant. Perturbed at this behaviour, Parvati asked him
the reason, and Shani replied that his looking at baby would harm the
newborn. However, on Parvati's insistence when Shani eyed the baby, the
child's head was severed instantly. All the gods started to bemoan, whereupon
Vishnu hurried to the bank of river Pushpabhadra and brought back the
head of a young elephant, and joined it to the baby's body, thus reviving